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This defect is most liable to occur in areas of great colour contrast i. At about the same time as the blank is being fed on to the machine, the appropriate yellow matrix is also being run on to a continuous feed elevator, each roll of matrix being cut to length, for synchronization with the blank, by the matrix make-up department. The matrix is attached to its predecessor by means of a 6-inch length of monel strip perforated in the same manner as a piece of negative cine film , and by four two-pronged clips. A driving sprocket with a three-position free wheel, normal, and stationary type of dog clutch, supplies this elevator from the feed reel.

Another sprocket carries the matrix into the top of the dye tank, where it runs in vertical paths past two cascades. These cascades are supplied with dye pumped up from a vat below the floor. The dye is passed through three filter bags, one large one in the vat and two smaller ones over the dye-tank cascades. During its travel through the dye tank the matrix passes over a driving sprocket and a weighted jockey pulley attached to a cord. This cord actuates the speed control arm of a four-bush motor which drives this section of the machine.

In this way the driving motor speed is governed by the tension of the film. This does no more than supply or take up stock in the event of slight sluggishness of the controlled driving motors when responding. From this elevator the matrix passes two blow-offs one either side of the film , runs downwards past a mercuroid trip switch and enters the roll tank from the top, passing under a roller on to the pin belt where the blank is pressed on to it by the first 6-inch roller and held in register by the pins.

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The pin belt is feet long, consisting of monel perforated strip 35 mm. The whole length is soldered into a loop. Four wheels of approximately inches diameter enable it to travel from end to end of the machine four times. The path from the wheel nearest the wet end passes through the roll tank by means of a water gate either end.

Towards the under side of the upper two paths, which travel from the wet to the dry end, and the upper side of the under two paths of the pin belt i. This trunking is rectangular in section approx. The side of the pin belt bearing the film is protected with wooden covers which are hinged for easy access.

The greater the temperature the greater the contrast. It is therefore Technicolor policy to keep these table temperatures constant according to a standard technique by means of mixing valves. The matrix and blank in close contact, and held in register by the pin belt, emerge from the water gate nearest the dye end of the roll tank, and pass under the large seating belt.

This seating belt is a loop of copper strip, about 9 inches diameter, similar to a piece of negative perforated cine film, but having smaller perforation on the track side. The large seating belt is followed by the small seating belt. The latter is similar to the first but only forms a loop 7 inches in diameter. It has only one seating roller and is of less weight. The object of the seating belts is to ensure the correct seating of the blank and matrix perforations around the pin belt teeth. Incorrect seating of the blank and matrix would cause transfer around the perforations.

Results of this are to be seen in the form of half round areas of colour with sharply defined edges against the perforations. The defect is most noticeable on the non-track side. A close contact between blank and matrix is still further ensured by the use of two weighted rollers, the first having a 4 lb.


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After these pressure rollers a sucker is placed to remove surplus water from around the perforations and pins. This is then followed by a blow-off to remove any surplus water drops from the cell side of the blank. If such a defect does occur, the number of perforations, frames, or feet, out of sync, are measured and the necessary length of leader attached to the next roll of blank or matrix whichever is applicable to be run on the machine. The pin belt is friction driven by the two dry end wheels, which are chain driven by a constant speed motor.

This is the only motor on the colour bank that is not controlled, and is therefore the one that sets the overall speed of the machine, and is termed the main drive motor.

It is this twist that brings about the stripping or parting of the two films. A mercuroid switch is placed on the blank just after the stripping point. Both matrix and blank run over pulleys both now being emulsion downwards and run in horizontal paths towards the dry end, immediately below the lower tables.

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The blank runs horizontally in a dry box from end to end three times before emerging at the dry end to travel to the top of the machine and over a captive diabola which by means of a cord governs the speed of the matrix dry box drive motor. The drive for the blank dry box is supplied by a friction loaded rubber covered pulley powered by a chain from the main drive motor.

The blank, after passing a mercuroid switch, travels into the pre-wet bath of the succeeding colour bank i. The object of this tank is to wash the matrix clear of any remaining dye a mercuroid switch being placed at the entry into this tank. After this the matrix passes into a wash tank and then up through the floor into the matrix dry box at the end of the transfer machine. It leaves tins to be rolled up on the take-up. The cyan bank is identical to the yellow the yellow and cyan banks being built side by side in one unit this formed an original two-colour machine.

The blank bearing the yellow and cyan dye image passes over to the magenta bank. This bank, and a disused one alongside, forms another of the original two-colour machines, and stands parallel to the yellow and cyan banks with a gangway about 6 ft. The magenta bank is very similar to the yellow and cyan, but has the following differences. A small tank containing alcohol, with a fixed elevator running in it, is placed between the wash back and roll tank.

This is only used when a certain matrix is known to be bad for air and transfer. It is on the magenta that these defects are most pronounced.

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The softening effect of the alcohol on the dye laden matrix emulsion not only minimises the above defect but also increases dye spread. The weights attached to the rollers after the seating belts are increased to 6 and 12 lb. The last two modifications are introduced in order to reduce the chances of air, and transfer. The blank on leaving the magenta dry box passes over waxing rollers running over the perforation tracks. After this the blank runs past a mercuroid switch, on to the take-up elevator. The mercuroid switch is a glass phial one-third filled with mercury, into which electrodes protrude at one end, the phial being mounted on an arm pivoted about two-thirds of its length.

On the short arm two wheels are mounted so that they ride on either side of the film i. The tension of the film running vertically causes the arm to remain horizontal. In the event of the film breaking, the weight of the glass phial, or mercuroid, on the longer arm, causes it to fall to a near vertical position, the mercury forming the circuit between the electrodes. The closed circuit actuates a relay which stops the machine, rings a bell, and switches on a pilot light each section having its own appropriate light.

These lights are coloured either yellow, cyan or magenta, according to their colour bank. The de-aerator is a machine situated on the ground floor i. The water is then sucked from the bottom of the cylinder and pumped up to the IB. To be set against the great reproductive advantages of an imbibition machine, of which we are all aware, are the following disadvantages not including the difficulties to be overcome in the production of matrices. In the event of off-sync, or off-frame troubles, many feet of film might be run before the correction can be applied.

In the event of a machine stop at least two reels of production might be N.

Guide to Early Printed Books

Any machine stop of more than 3 minutes would cause permanent register trouble owing to distortion of the matrices on the hot tables i. Any particle of dirt would give a defect many times its size—i. But if it was deposited on the matrix after the dye tank, or at any time on the blank, it would be represented by a surrounding area of transfer if on the matrix by one colour; if on the blank by all the succeeding colours.

If the blank emulsion is too hard — transfer would ensue, and possibly — air. If the blank emulsion be softened to overcome these two defects, bleeding or dye spread would increase.

Staging Modernity

A mean technique has to be pursued which admits both defects to a lesser degree. There must exist the continual problem of register, owing to the stretch and shrinkage of new and old matrices besides the troubles experienced with negatives, masters, dupes, etc. This might be caused by a mild form of shrinkage either blank or matrix. The above defects are peculiar to a pin-belt machine.


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  5. But the more usual defects are still present, i. The following description of an imbibition printing machine patented by the LB. Corporation is concerned with the means at present employed by Technicolor in U. Convention date, Dec. Reference should be made to Figures A-D. In the process of an apparatus for printing in multicolour from a set of photographically prepared gelatin matrices, the blanks to be printed and the matrices are fixed to supports and carried through cycles, the cycle for the matrices being automatically controlled and including the steps of applying excess dye to the matrices, removing a part of this dye, and pressing the matrices into contact with successive blanks.

    Preferably the matrices are overexposed and overdyed so that the removal of dye results in a gradation which corresponds to the straight part of the characteristic curve of an emulsion. The removal of dye is also adjustable to attain colour balance in the resulting pictures and may be effected by sprays. Apparatus for the process comprises a set of machines corresponding to the number of colours to be printed.

    In the form shown, each machine comprises a dye bath 3, Fig. The dye removal sprays are delivered by an oscillating tube 40 and may be deflected by a movable hood 50 to vary the quantity of dye removed. The matrices are carried by blocks 26, Fig. Automatic control of the hood 50 may be provided. As shown in Fig.

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    At the top of its travel, a pin on the hood closes the cut-out switch causing the motor to stop and the hood returns under gravity. A second pin occupying a pre-set position on the front of the matrix support 26 then closes one of the switches bringing a stop into the path of the hood 50 as it returns. Preferably the dye bath and sprays are maintained at a raised temperature. Suitable dyes for a three-colour process are Erioglaucine for the cyan component, acid fuchsin for the magenta, and resorcine yellow for the yellow.

    For example, there may be compensation for sunburn during or following exterior work.